A lot of woodworkers believe that hand tools alone can be used to make everything, and without them, nothing can be achieved, be it furniture work or a birdhouse.
Different innovations and advancement in technology have changed the game a bit, most of them now combine portable power tools with their hand tools, some even have gone to the extent of adding sedentary equipment, and large machinery like the table saw to speed up the process of production.
This article will focus on the functions and specifications of each hand tool, and if you’re able to play around them well, you can achieve greater things with any piece of wood you handle.
You’ll be able to connect with your woods on an entirely different level than when you make use of machines to cut or rip the wood.
Oilstones aren’t as clean as the Waterstones. So going for the Waterstone would be a better choice as they come in different grits; 800-, 1200-, and 4,000- grit stones.
The combination square usually comes in 12in.
This tool is designed to mark stock out at 45 and 90 degrees respectively, and it’s able to double as a marking gauge and as a ruler.
Make sure to buy the affordable and best one, because the combination square is a tool that wouldn’t be leaving your side while working.
If you can afford a 13-oz call hammer, don’t hesitate to get a good one.
The hammer will be at its best when it comes to general cabinet work and other installation work.
They are not so expensive and yet they still get the job done in a perfect way.
You can make use of this mallet to cut out mortises and also drive in joints.
An 8-inch dovetail saw that has 18 teeth per inch with a turned handle would be the right tool to cut small pieces.
You can also consider the Japanese saws, although you have to handle it with utmost care because the blades are quite expensive should there will be a need for replacement.
The plane either can be of regular-angle it low-angle. They are compact, well made and solid. The importance of the block plane is to plan small parts, plan end grain and also flush the surfaces.
You can make use of the smoothing plane when you want to do the final planning of wood surfaces and also can be used for shooting edges for faring joints and on short pieces.
You should meet a good smoothing plane for nothing less than $100.
There are a lot of planes that can fit the bill, but this particular plane is very useful when it comes to trimming rabbets and trimming joints flush.
New ones that are being manufactured now has removable front half that makes the tool work like a chisel plane.
This type of plane is used primarily to make spindles, fair concave curves, and round edges. Positioned between two handles is the tool’s short
Positioned between two handles is the tool’s short sole. The cap iron holds the blade in place, and they can either be used with a pushing or pulling motion.
Scrapers aren’t so expensive, they are durable, and their work is efficient. You can smoothen veneered and hardwood surface using a scrapper, either in lieu of sanding or before.
The burnishers are smooth rods made of hard steel, and they are being used to put an edge on the scraper.
They are either oval, triangular or round in section.
When a burnisher is polished the right way, a smooth edge is created on the scraper, in turn, leaving the scraped wood to be smoother.
You can as well incorporate and make use of the Philips head screwdriver if a burnisher isn’t available.
The drill bits that can be found in a workshop include spade bits, Forstner bits, twist drills and brad-point bits, each with its distinctive factors, limitations, and advantages.
During the process of gluing and assembling, a good number of clamps are being used to squeeze pieces of wood materials together.
The bar clamps are designed with two jaws placed on a steel bar at equal length, usually I-shaped.
The pipe clamp is a bit similar, just that a pipe is being substituted for the I-bar and it isn’t as rigid as bar clamps.
Both clamps are suitable for setting large carcasses and also assembling wide surfaces like table tops.
Based on numerous research works that have been carried out, we’ve been able to come up with a number of adhesive products that are being manufactured in the United States (approximately 2,000 products).
With the huge number, it’s sad to conclude that not up to a dozen are actually good for woodworking.
Before we move on to talk about the different types of adhesives, I feel you should have an idea of how wooden parts are being bonded by glue.
This should bring us down to the chemical components of woods, and there is an interaction of adhesives with the different components during bonding.
A huge part of the board is made of hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin, and these together make up the structural matrix of wood material and gives it the strength, elasticity, and rigidity.
The remaining part (about 5 percent) that makes up the board is composed of resins, sugars, coloring agents, essential oils, and tannins.
This mixture is responsible for the wood’s decay resistance, smell and color.
Some resinous woods like rosewood and teak, unfortunately, are composed of extractives that impale and interfere when the gluing process starts.
Glues like urea formaldehyde, resorcinol, and epoxy all cure through a chemical reaction, most times after there’s a mixture of two components, while adhesives that are thermoplastic, like white and yellow glues, cure through evaporation.
Once any of the glue mentioned above is dry, the layer of cured adhesive between the wood surfaces now acts like a bridge that holds the boards firm.
White and yellow glues probably should be the most popular and often used glues in woodworking today.
Both of the glues are PVA adhesives (polyvinyl acetates) that come in different varieties: craft or white glue, cross-linking OKAY emulsion and yellow aliphatic resin.
All these highlighted have a set of properties that seem balanced, and that makes them suitable for wood glue.
They have a quick grab and are easy to use, they clean up with water rapidly, efficient in wood gluing situations and are non-toxic.
It’s important to understand that these liquid adhesives can get spoilt when in the frozen state.
They also have not so good creep resistance and shouldn’t be used with load-bearing beams, structural assemblies generally without some form of mechanical fastenings like screws or nails.
Resorcinol and urea formaldehyde are both frequently used to bond wood when water and creep-resistant bonds are needed.
UF (Urea-formaldehyde) which are most times called plastic resin glue is more like a one-part powder.
This powder is a mixture of hardeners and dry resins and if kept in a dry state will be stored indefinitely.
The water added will help activate the adhesive and also dissolve the chemicals.
The pot life seems long after mixing, but the activated glue’s viscosity slowly increases after an hour, since the adhesive is the type that is too thick to work with.
Once it has been cured, structural bonds will be produced by the UF adhesives and it would even be more difficult to recognize the tan glue line on woods that are light-colored.
The UF adhesives are used to glue the hardwood plywood panels and the interior load-bearing beams.
RF adhesives have exceptional solvent resistance, very high strength and if cured properly can withstand heavy immersion in fluid (water), and are best in the case of marine applications.
The resorcinol formaldehyde often comes in two-part slides: the first part is when ethyl a Coxhoe dissolves the resorcinol resin and the second part is composed of powdered paraformaldehyde.
The components are mixed together to turn on the adhesive, but you have to be careful when mixing so as to avoid lumps.
You have to be very careful when working with UF and RF adhesives, make sure you’re in a ventilated area to avoid health issues, put on a mask and go on breaks anytime you feel like.
Epoxies due to its tensile and high strength, ability to join difficult-to-bond wood materials, its waterproof nature and excellent gap-filling capacity has made it one of the high-performance adhesives of the wood making world.
Epoxy is made up of an amine hardener and an epoxy resin.
An almost equal amount of hardener and resin are mixed in the right proportion to prepare the adhesive and to begin the curing process, which does not work by solvent evaporation but by chemical reaction.
The mixing proportions are very critical, and excess of any of the component will negatively affect the bonding strength.
The gap-filling ability due to the lack of solvent makes epoxy exceptional.